The Arab Republic of Egypt is a member of the United Nations and the African Union. It has ratified many UN Human Rights Conventions (compare list on the right) and thus has made binding international commitments to adhere to the standards laid down in these universal human rights documents.
Egypt is an Arabic-speaking country in North Africa. With an area of 1,002,450 square km it is the 12th largest country of the continent. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the east. On a global scale, its population density is medium. The capital of the country, which became independent on 28 February 1922 from the United Kingdom, is Cairo. Egypt is a member of the regional economic communities CEN-SAD and COMESA.
With a Human Development Index of 0.70 Egypt ranks 123rd of 182 countries ranked in the UNDP Human Development Report of 2009. Life expectancy of the 81.5 million inhabitants at birth is 70 years, population growth is 1.8 percent per year. GNI is 1,800 US-$ per capita. External debt is 23.2 percent of gross national income. Primary school enrolment is 95.7 percent.
In as far as Egypt has ratified the Optional Protocols for UN Human Rights Conventions or has accepted the Competence of the corresponding UN Treaty Bodies (compare list on the right), the inhabitants of Egypt and their representatives are able to invoke their human rights through these bodies.
All inhabitants of Egypt may turn to the UN Human Rights Committee through procedure 1503, to the Special Rapporteurs for violations of specific human rights or to ECOSOC for women's rights violations.
Since Egypt is a member state of UNESCO, its citizens may use the UNESCO procedure for human rights violations in UNESCO's fields of mandate.
Employers' or workers' and certain other organizations (not individuals) of Egypt may file complaints through the ILO procedure in the cases of those conventions which Egypt has ratified.
Since Egypt is an AU member, its citizens and NGOs may file complaints to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.
They may also file complaints according to the EU guidelines (on Human Rights Defenders, Death Penalty and Torture) to Embassies of EU Member States and the Delegations of the European Commission.
In cases of human rights violations by multinational enterprises, they may also invoke the National Contact Point in an OECD member state.
Egypt has not yet joined the International Criminal Court.