The Republic of Ghana is a member of the United Nations and the African Union. It has ratified many UN Human Rights Conventions (compare list on the right) and thus has made binding international commitments to adhere to the standards laid down in these universal human rights documents.
Ghana is an English-speaking country in West Africa. The middle-sized country with an area of 238,535 square km borders the Atlantic Ocean in the south. On a global scale, its population density is medium. The capital of the country, which became independent on 6 March 1957 from the United Kingdom, is Accra. Ghana is a member of the regional economic communities ECOWAS and CEN-SAD.
With a Human Development Index of 0.53 Ghana ranks 152nd of 182 countries ranked in the UNDP Human Development Report of 2009. Life expectancy of the 23.4 million inhabitants at birth is 57 years, population growth is 2.1 percent per year. GNI is 670 US-$ per capita. External debt is 29.9 percent of gross national income. Primary school enrolment is 72.9 percent.
In as far as Ghana has ratified the Optional Protocols for UN Human Rights Conventions or has accepted the Competence of the corresponding UN Treaty Bodies (compare list on the right), the inhabitants of Ghana and their representatives are able to invoke their human rights through these bodies.
All inhabitants of Ghana may turn to the UN Human Rights Committee through procedure 1503, to the Special Rapporteurs for violations of specific human rights or to ECOSOC for women's rights violations.
Since Ghana is a member state of UNESCO, its citizens may use the UNESCO procedure for human rights violations in UNESCO's fields of mandate.
Employers' or workers' and certain other organizations (not individuals) of Ghana may file complaints through the ILO procedure in the cases of those conventions which Ghana has ratified.
Since Ghana is an AU member, its citizens and NGOs may file complaints to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.
They may also file complaints according to the EU guidelines (on Human Rights Defenders, Death Penalty and Torture) to Embassies of EU Member States and the Delegations of the European Commission.
In cases of human rights violations by multinational enterprises, they may also invoke the National Contact Point in an OECD member state.
Ghana has joined the International Criminal Court, it may thus be called upon in case of severe crimes.