The Republic of Madagascar is a member of the United Nations and the African Union. It has ratified many UN Human Rights Conventions (compare list on the right) and thus has made binding international commitments to adhere to the standards laid down in these universal human rights documents.
Madagascar is a Malagasy-, French- and English-speaking country in Southeast Africa. The country is an island in the Indian Ocean with an area of 587,041 square km off the south eastern coast of Africa opposite Mozambique. On a global scale, its population density is low. The capital of the country, which became independent on 26 June 1960 from France, is Antananarivo. Madagascar is a member of the regional economic communities SADC and COMESA.
With a Human Development Index of 0.54 Madagascar ranks 145th of 182 countries ranked in the UNDP Human Development Report of 2009. Life expectancy of the 19.1 million inhabitants at birth is 61 years, population growth is 2.7 percent per year. GNI is 410 US-$ per capita. External debt is 22.7 percent of gross national income. Primary school enrolment is 98.5 percent.
In as far as Madagascar has ratified the Optional Protocols for UN Human Rights Conventions or has accepted the Competence of the corresponding UN Treaty Bodies (compare list on the right), the inhabitants of Madagascar and their representatives are able to invoke their human rights through these bodies.
All inhabitants of Madagascar may turn to the UN Human Rights Committee through procedure 1503, to the Special Rapporteurs for violations of specific human rights or to ECOSOC for women's rights violations.
Since Madagascar is a member state of UNESCO, its citizens may use the UNESCO procedure for human rights violations in UNESCO's fields of mandate.
Employers' or workers' and certain other organizations (not individuals) of Madagascar may file complaints through the ILO procedure in the cases of those conventions which Madagascar has ratified.
Since Madagascar is an AU member, its citizens and NGOs may file complaints to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.
They may also file complaints according to the EU guidelines (on Human Rights Defenders, Death Penalty and Torture) to Embassies of EU Member States and the Delegations of the European Commission.
In cases of human rights violations by multinational enterprises, they may also invoke the National Contact Point in an OECD member state.
Madagascar has joined the International Criminal Court, it may thus be called upon in case of severe crimes.