The Republic of Mozambique is a member of the United Nations and the African Union. It has ratified many UN Human Rights Conventions (compare list on the right) and thus has made binding international commitments to adhere to the standards laid down in these universal human rights documents.
Mozambique is a Portuguese-speaking country in Southeast Africa. The country with an area of 801,590 square km is bordered by the Indian Ocean to its east. On a global scale, its population density is low. The capital of the country, which became independent on 25 June 1975 from Portugal, is Maputo. Mozambique is a member of the regional economic community SADC.
With a Human Development Index of 0.40 Mozambique ranks eleventh lowest among 182 countries ranked in the UNDP Human Development Report of 2009. Life expectancy of the 21.8 million inhabitants at birth is 42 years, population growth is 1.9 percent per year. GNI is 370 US-$ per capita. External debt is 44.0 percent of gross national income. Primary school enrolment is 76.0 percent.
In as far as Mozambique has ratified the Optional Protocols for UN Human Rights Conventions or has accepted the Competence of the corresponding UN Treaty Bodies (compare list on the right), the inhabitants of Mozambique and their representatives are able to invoke their human rights through these bodies.
All inhabitants of Mozambique may turn to the UN Human Rights Committee through procedure 1503, to the Special Rapporteurs for violations of specific human rights or to ECOSOC for women's rights violations.
Since Mozambique is a member state of UNESCO, its citizens may use the UNESCO procedure for human rights violations in UNESCO's fields of mandate.
Employers' or workers' and certain other organizations (not individuals) of Mozambique may file complaints through the ILO procedure in the cases of those conventions which Mozambique has ratified.
Since Mozambique is an AU member, its citizens and NGOs may file complaints to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.
They may also file complaints according to the EU guidelines (on Human Rights Defenders, Death Penalty and Torture) to Embassies of EU Member States and the Delegations of the European Commission.
In cases of human rights violations by multinational enterprises, they may also invoke the National Contact Point in an OECD member state.
Mozambique has not yet joined the International Criminal Court.