The Republic of the Sudan is a member of the United Nations and the African Union. It has ratified many UN Human Rights Conventions (compare list on the right) and thus has made binding international commitments to adhere to the standards laid down in these universal human rights documents.
The Sudan is an Arabic-and English-speaking country in Northeast Africa. On 9 July 2011, the Republic of South Sudan has become independent from the Sudan. The Sudan is by area the third largest country in Africa, with 1,886,068 square km. It borders the Red Sea to the east. On a global scale, its population density is low. The capital of the country, which itself became independent on 1 January 1956 from the United Kingdom, is Khartoum. The Sudan is a member of the regional economic communities IGAD, COMESA and CEN-SAD.
With a Human Development Index of 0.53 the Sudan ranks 150th of 182 countries ranked in the UNDP Human Development Report of 2009. Life expectancy of the 38.3 million inhabitants at birth is 58 years, population growth is 2.2 percent per year. GNI is 1,130 US-$ per capita. External debt is 45.9 percent of gross national income. Primary school enrolment is 41.2 percent.
In as far as the Sudan has ratified the Optional Protocols for UN Human Rights Conventions or has accepted the Competence of the corresponding UN Treaty Bodies (compare list on the right), the inhabitants of the Sudan and their representatives are able to invoke their human rights through these bodies.
All inhabitants of the Sudan may turn to the UN Human Rights Committee through procedure 1503, to the Special Rapporteurs for violations of specific human rights or to ECOSOC for women's rights violations.
Since the Sudan is a member state of UNESCO, its citizens may use the UNESCO procedure for human rights violations in UNESCO's fields of mandate.
Employers' or workers' and certain other organizations (not individuals) of the Sudan may file complaints through the ILO procedure in the cases of those conventions which the Sudan has ratified.
Since the Sudan is an AU member, its citizens and NGOs may file complaints to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.
They may also file complaints according to the EU guidelines (on Human Rights Defenders, Death Penalty and Torture) to Embassies of EU Member States and the Delegations of the European Commission.
In cases of human rights violations by multinational enterprises, they may also invoke the National Contact Point in an OECD member state.
The Sudan has not yet joined the International Criminal Court.